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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 81-87

Ovarian reserve testing and uterine blood flow assessment using two-dimensional and three-dimensional Doppler in patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriage

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Benha Teaching Hospital, Benha, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Hosam-Eldin A Afify
1 Ahmed Hamdi Street, Benha - 13511
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bmfj.bmfj_107_17

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Background and aim The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian reserve, uterine artery blood flow, and endometrial and subendometrial blood flow in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage compared with normal fertile women. Patients and methods The study design was a case–control one. The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Benha University, Benha, Egypt. Women were divided into two groups: those with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage (the study group, n=50), and those who had no history of miscarriage and had at least one child born at term (the control group, n=50). At days 3–4 of the cycle, ovarian reserve testing was performed for all women by measuring follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and oestradiol levels. Thereafter, two-dimensional (2D) and 3D transvaginal ultrasonography and power Doppler were performed to detect antral follicle count, ovarian volume, and ovarian stromal Vascularization Index (VI), Flow Index (FI) and Vascularization Flow Index (VFI). Between days 18 and 23 of the cycle, transvaginal ultrasonography was performed for all women using 2D, pulsed Doppler and 3D-power Doppler mode to detect endometrial thickness, Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index, endometrial volume and endometrial and subendometrial blood flow presented by the indices VI, FI and VFI. The indices between the two groups were compared. Results Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index was significantly higher in the study group (P=0.001), whereas endometrial VI (P≤0.001), FI (P=0.01) and VFI (P≤0.001) and subendometrial VI, FI and VFI (P≤0.001) were significantly lower in the study group. The ovarian reserve tests, endometrial thickness and endometrial volume, however, were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion The presence of good uterine and endometrial blood flow is an important prerequisite for successful implantation and continuation of pregnancy as shown by higher uterine artery blood flow resistance and lower endometrial and subendometrial blood flow in recurrent unexplained miscarriage cases. We could not find any cutoff values that could predict the occurrence of miscarriage, and hence larger prospective studies are needed to confirm such results and reaching values that can accurately predict the occurrence of miscarriage.

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